Grapes and Raisins انگور و کشمش
Seasonal activities: Winter
(mid December through mid March)
- Prune to remove 75% to 90% of last year’s growth and to maintain the form of the vine in the location desired. Almost all varieties can be cut to reduce canes to short spurs.
- Leave 3 buds on each spur if the cans are fat (diameter of thumb) 2 buds on medium canes (index finger size), and 1 bud for pencil diameter canes.
- Cane pruning is required for Thompson Seedless, but will work for any variety. Leave 3- 6 canes containing 10-15 buds, depending on the vigor of the vine.
- Vines with numerous fat long canes can support many long fruiting canes. However, those with short skinny growth should be pruned back heavily, leaving fewer canes and buds per cane. Generally 30-50 buds are left per mature vine regardless of the pruning system.
- Daub pruning wounds with benomyl immediately after pruning to control Eutypa dieback.
Problems and Opportunities
- Priority problems for Afghanistan grapes include: lack of proper raisin drying house (many people dry fruit on the roofs of their houses or directly on the ground), no layer between the ground and the grapes (or methods to prevent dust/dirt contamination), lack of washing and sorting (stems, bugs, dirt is common), reduced chemical treatments to meet export standards (sulfur, etc.), lack of improved trellising pruning, variety selection (see PHDP), Gibberellin application, markets and meeting custom standards, reducing water wastage in irrigation.
- Priority opportunities include Integrated Pest Management, markets in Pakistan for seedless table grapes, develop a pool rootstock of material resistant to phylloxera in case the microscopic insect spreads from surrounding countries, increased awareness of benefits of washing and sorting (such as market access), washing and sorting methods, construction of drying houses, improved trellising promotion, exploitation of international market opportunities (>90 unique varieties in Afghanistan).
- About Grapes Fact Sheet English, (Dari) دری , and پشتو (Pashto) (UC Davis)
- Grape Production by Province Interactive Map (UC Davis)
- Cultivated Area by Province Interactive Map (UC Davis)
- Grapevine Nursery Management Manual (3 MB) (UC Davis and Roots of Peace)
- Cutting Management (Roots of Peace)
- Grafting Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
- General Production Manual (2.5 MB) (UC Davis)
- Variety selection-- For certified sapling contact PHDP (Perennial Horticulture Development Project)
- Intercropping Fact sheet (UC Davis)
- Water Management
- Drip Irrigation (Roots of Peace)
- Water Requirements for Grapes PPT as PDF (1.9 MB) (Andrew Teubes)
- Irrigation of Perennial Crops (3.4 MB) (Roots of Peace)
- Principals of Irrigation of Trees and Vines PPT as PDF (2.8MB) and (Dari) دری (4.6 MB) (UC Davis)
- Drip Irrigation (11.7MB) (IDE)
- Nutrient Requirements PPT as PDF (1.2 MB) (Andrew Teubes)
- Fertilization Fact Sheet (IFA)
- Why Trellis? Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
- Trellising Manual (1 MB) (Roots of Peace)
- T-Trellis PPT as PDF (1.1 MB) (Andrew Teubes)
- I-Trellis PPT as PDF (1.1 MB) (Andrew Teubes)
- Conversion of Traditional Bush Vines to I-Trellis PPT as PDF (Andrew Teubes)
- Gibberellin Application Report (PHDP)
- Pruning and Canopy Management
- Importance of Correct Pruning and Canopy Management PPT as PDF (1.1 MB) (Andrew Teubes)
- Pruning Systems for Grapes PPT as PDF (1.3 MB) (Andrew Teubes)
- Pruning video: Spur Pruning and Cane Pruning (OSU)
- Spring and Summer Management Practices PPT as PDF (2.2 MB) (Andrew Teubes)
Pest Management for Grapes and Raisins
- Common grape pests include downy mildew, powdery mildew, cicadas, spider mites.
- See Pest Identification Cards and general Pest Management Page
- General Postharvest Manual (UC Davis and Roots of Peace)
- Raisin drying ("Kishmish Khanas" are buildings dedicated to raisin drying)
- Drying Fact Sheet (Roots of Peace and UC Davis)
- Grape to Raisin Time Lapse Video (James Knott)
- Pre-treatment (Roots of Peace and UC Davis)
- Manual (2.2 MB) and (1.8 MB) (Roots of Peace)
- 10 Principles of Postharvest Management Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
- Principles of GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
- Quality Grading (Roots of Peace)
- General Postharvest Page