Watersheds and Forestry آبریزه ها و جنگنلات

The country’s limited forest resources suffered depletion to meet demands from lucrative export markets and for firewood. Severe overgrazing and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of the livestock population, and reduction in ground cover in hillsides has led to floods, widespread soil erosion, and reduced water retention in aquifers. (from World Bank Report)

Problems and Opportunities

  • Upper watershed (mountains and non-irrigated plateaus)
    • Priority problems include rill and gully (water) erosion, wind erosion, poor grazing practices, root excavation, excessive tree and brush removal.
    • Priority Opportunities include Control Grazing, terracing, loose stone check dams (See FAO Watershed Management Manual - Gully Control); improved and increased fodder production in irrigated areas; nursery improvement for range rehabilitation.
  • Streambank erosion due to flooding
    • Priority problems include loss of agricultural land base, destruction of infrastructure (bridges, buildings and dams)
    • Priority Opportunities include check dams , gabion baskets (picture at right), retaining walls
  • Deforestation
    • Priority problems include heavy demand for firewood as primary fuel source and grazing pressure from livestock
    • Priority Opportunities include alternative fuel sources (particularly gas and mini-hydropower using local waterways), public awareness, protecting young trees from animals to permit natural regrowth, pistachio forests
  • These priorities and opportunities are based on feedback from John Groninger (SIU) and Ahmad Zia Mirzada (MAIL).

Overview

Options for Resource Conservation

Planning Watershed Management

Using Trees for Management

Using Physical Structures for Management

  • Equipment
    • Build and Use an A-frame Level for Terrace Surveying video
    • How to Build and Use a Water Level for Terrace Surveying video
  • Managing River Flow
  • Manage Erosion on Slopes

Flood Risk Maps

Maps detailing potential flood risks nationally and in select provinces, created by iMMAP

Province Watershed Studies

A limited number or studies are available; they are uploaded here as they become available.

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Provinces

Ghor

Ghazni

Faryab

Farah

Daikundy

Bamyan

Balkh

Baghlan

Badghis

Badakhshan

Zabul

Wardak

Uruzgan

Takhar

Sar-e-Pul

Samangan

Parwan

Panjshir

Paktya

Paktika

Nuristan

Nimroz

Nangarhar

Logar

Laghman

Kunduz

Kunar

Khost

Kapisa

Kandahar

Kabul

Jawzjan

Herat

Helmand