Weather آب و هوا

Problems and Opportunities

  • Upper watershed (mountains and non-irrigated plateaus)
    • Priority problems include rill and gully (water) erosion, wind erosion, poor grazing practices, root excavation, excessive tree and brush removal.
    • Priority Opportunities include control grazing, terracing, loose stone check dams (See FAO Watershed Management Manual - Gully Control); improved and increased fodder production in irrigated areas; nursery improvement for range rehabilitation.
  • Streambank erosion due to flooding
    • Priority problems include loss of agricultural land base, destruction of infrastructure (bridges, buildings and dams)
    • Priority Opportunities include check dams, gabion baskets (picture at right), retaining walls
  • Deforestation
    • Priority problems include heavy demand for firewood as primary fuel source and grazing pressure from livestock
    • Priority Opportunities include alternative fuel sources (particularly gas and mini-hydropower using local waterways), public awareness, protecting young trees from animals to permit natural regrowth, pistachio forests
  • These priorities and opportunities are based on feedback from John Groninger (SIU) and Ahmad Zia Mirzada (MAIL).

Overview

  • Afghanistan is a mountainous country in a dry part of the world which experiences extremes of climate and weather. Winters are cold and snowy, and summers hot and dry. The wet season generally runs from winter through early spring, but the country on the whole is dry, falling within the Desert or Desert Steppe climate classification. Very little snow falls in the lowland deserts of the southwest, but the snow season averages roughly October-April in the mountains and varies considerably with elevation. (US National Climatic Data Center, NOAA)
  • Afghanistan has three main land regions:
    • Northern Plains. Temperatures average about 38F (3C) in January and approximately 90F (32C) in July. Average annual precipitation is 7in (180mm).
    • Central Highlands. Temperatures average about 25F (-4C) in January and approximately 75F (24C) in July. Average annual precipitation is 15in (380mm).
    • Southwestern Lowlands. Desert or semi desert land. Temperatures average about 35F (2C) in January and approximately 85F (29C) in July. Average annual precipitation ranges from 2 to 9in (50 to 230mm).

Climate Data: Climate Normals

  • Climate Preduction Center Website (NOAA)
  • Climate Records 1939-1984 Website (NOAA)
  • Computed by the Afghan Meteorological Authority (Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation), these Afghan normals cover the period roughly from 1956-1983. The set of data are provided by the US Air Force Combat Climatology Center. Please click on the image below to get to the interactive map and retrieve climate normals.

by J.P. Santos, 2013

FEWS NET - Afghanistan (Famine Early Warning Systems network)

  • FEWS NET is a USAID-funded activity that collaborates with international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and vulnerability information on emerging and evolving food security issues. It includes food security updates, weather hazards, and agro-climatic monitoring, among others.

The Afghanistan Agrometeorology Monthly/Seasonal Bulletin

  • By the Agro-Meteorology Project, scientists with the USGS Agro-Meteorology (Agromet) Program assist the Afghan Government in the collection and analysis of agricultural and meteorological data as it relates to crop production, irrigation, water supply, energy, and aviation.

Daily data

  • Weekly Reports Website (Select Our Info --> Weather) (MAIL)
  • Daily data for Kabul and Herat Website (NOAA)
  • Daily data of numerous stations in Afghanistan on temperature (mean, max, min), precipitation, snow depth, and others is provided through the Climate Data Online tool (US National Climatic Data Center, NOAA).

Climate Maps

  • Precipitation, Hours of Sunshine and Climatic Regions JPEG Map (AIMS)
  • Average Monthly Rainfall JPEG Map (AIMS)
  • Average Seasonal Temperature JPEG Map (AIMS)
  • Climatic Variable Averages PDF Map (6.0 MB) (iMMAP)
  • Evapotranspiration Variability PDF Map (4.0 MB) (iMMAP)
  • Rainfall Variability PDF Map (4.2 MB) (iMMAP)
  • Historic Snow Water Equivalent Versus November 2014 PDF Map (1.26 MB) (iMMAP)
  • Snowfall Persistence Variability PDF Map (5.6 MB) (iMMAP)
  • Temperature Variability PDF Map (4.1 MB) (iMMAP)
  • Wind Speed Variability PDF Map (3.9 MB) (iMMAP)
  • Thematic Maps (FAO)

Flood Risk Maps

Maps detailing potential flood risks nationally and in select provinces, created by iMMAP

usda

Provinces

Ghor

Ghazni

Faryab

Farah

Daikundy

Bamyan

Balkh

Baghlan

Badghis

Badakhshan

Zabul

Wardak

Uruzgan

Takhar

Sar-e-Pul

Samangan

Parwan

Panjshir

Paktya

Paktika

Nuristan

Nimroz

Nangarhar

Logar

Laghman

Kunduz

Kunar

Khost

Kapisa

Kandahar

Kabul

Jawzjan

Herat

Helmand