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Soils خاکشناسی

ContentSoil USDA

Afghanistan soils are formed under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. Textural classes are mostly clay loam to sandy loam. Soil pH and calcium carbonate contents are high. Soil organic matter content ranges from 0.2 to 2.5%. Water holding capacity is low, permeability and infiltration rates are high. Soil salinity is generally not a problem. Soil fertility tests have shown low levels of nitrogen, variable levels for phosphorus, and adequate levels of potassium.  Micronutrients deficiencies for iron, zinc, copper, and boron are common.


  • Priority problems include high pH, low organic matter, high amounts of calcium carbonate, high erosion potential, poor soil structure, micronutrient deficiencies.
  • Priority opportunities include additions of organic matter (i.e., compost, cover crops, animal manures), mulches, conservation tillage, crop rotation and improved fallows, foliar application of nutrients, correct fertilizer timing, placement and amount, testing fertilizer quality, terracing and contour barriers.


  • Soil Regions of Afghanistan Map (1.0 MB) (NRCS)
  • Geologic and Mineral Resources of Afghanistan Link (26 MB)


Soil Fertility

Soil Assessment

  • Testing and Test Kits

Soil Erosion

  • Soil Erosion Info Sheet (NRCS)
  • Estimating Residue with the Line-Transect Method Fact Sheet (Univ of Wisconsin)
  • Gully Erosion Control: Watershed Management Manual: Gully Control Link (FAO)
  • Soil and Water Conservation Poster Booklet English and (Dari) دری (5.9 MB) (USDA)
  • Watershed Conservation Management and Rehabilitation PPT as PDF

    Soil Management

    Growing Media